Translated by Brad Damaré
This translation is an edited version of Ukrainian scholar Halyna Koval’chuk’s article “Z istorii ukrains’koho knyhoznavstva (do 100-richchia Ukrains’koho naukovoho instytutu knyhoznavstva),” in the Vernads’kyi National Library of Ukraine’s Library Herald [Bibliotechnyi visnyk], no. 3 (2022), 56-70.
There are three levels of notes to this article: author’s notes by Halyna Koval’chuk, translator’s notes by Brad Damaré, and editor’s notes by Anne O. Fisher. Author’s notes appear with no additional designation, while translator’s notes are followed by (translator’s note) and editor’s notes are followed by (Fisher’s note). Titles in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian are given in translation and are followed by the transliterated title at first occurrence. Square brackets are used for the translator’s brief in-text clarifications.
The year 2022 marks the centenary of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies [Ukrains’kyi naukovyi instytut knyhoznavstva, henceforth UNIK], founded in Kyiv in 1922. This article provides an overview of the Institute and its activities, informing readers of what the Ukrainian school of book studies achieved a century ago. We will touch on the main areas of research and publishing developed by the UNIK while also emphasizing that the progress of Ukrainian book studies was brutally interrupted in 1931, when the very discipline of book studies itself was declared bourgeois-nationalist and fascist by the Soviet authorities, as were the Institute and its leading experts. It can’t escape notice that such declarations are highly reminiscent of Russia’s present-day accusations against Ukraine. The harsh criticism of the Institute and its staff resulted in the cessation of book-studies research in early Soviet-era Ukraine, the undeniable destruction of this area of scholarship, and, later, repressions against prominent scholars of the book.
Book studies [knyhoznavstvo], understood as the study of the book as a material object, a synonym for bibliology — from the Greek βιβλιον [book] and λογος [word, discourse] — came together as a field in various European countries as early as the eighteenth century, though individual studies of books naturally existed earlier, since the book itself has had a significant history. Interpretations of this area of study, its tasks, and its place in the overall system of academic knowledge have varied depending on the time, country, and the work of particular authors. The earliest and most significant were those of Dresden librarian J.M. Francke (Catalogus bibliothecae Bunavianae, 1750), which already demonstrates a marked tendency to highlight a range of issues related to the book; the many articles concerning books, bibliographies, publication, and distribution contained in the world-famous, multi-volume encyclopedia of D. Diderot and J. d’Alembert (Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers, 1751-1780); and the two-volume study by Austrian librarian M. Denis (Einleitung in die Bücherkunde, 1777-1778) where the term “book studies” [Bücherkunde] first appears. In the early nineteenth century, the French librarian É.-G. Peignot presented theoretical works in the field of book studies (Dictionnaire raisonné de bibliologie, 1802, 1804), calling this field “bibliology.” Nineteenth-century book studies in Europe continued either within the framework of bibliography, or within library science, or as part of the history of literature, or by being integrated into a separate area of study closely tied to the history of the book.
Since the topic of our article is the history of Ukrainian book studies, we should note that the first developments on Ukrainian territory were made in Polish by P. Jarkowski, a librarian at the Krzemieniec Lyceum in Volhynia who taught the lyceum students a course on bibliography and later, beginning in 1814, bibliology.1 The understanding of book studies as a general science that included bibliography, library science, the history of writing and books, the theory and terminology of book studies, studies of the book trade and editorial and publishing matters, the art of the book, and more gradually took hold in the early twentieth century.
Revolutionary events in the Russian empire in the first decades of the twentieth century caused a surge of national self-awareness, and with it the rapid development of many disciplines of humanities, including book studies, in the Ukrainian lands.2 Kyiv became the center of the book-studies movement; the Ministry of Public Education of the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People’s Republic created a Library and Archives Department there in 1917. This department laid the foundations for the state management of industries related to book publishing, state accounting and registration of publications, and the creation of libraries. The Bookseller [Knyhar], a monthly journal of literary criticism and bibliography — essentially a book studies journal — was published in Kyiv from 1917 to 1920. The government under Hetman P. Skoropads’kyi founded the National (soon to be renamed All-People’s) Library of the Ukrainian State (today the Vernads’kyi National Library of Ukraine [Natsional’na biblioteka Ukrainy imeni V.I. Vernads’koho]) in 1918. The government of the Ukrainian People’s Republic approved the creation of the Main Book Chamber [Holovna knizhna palata], charged with supporting the development of a state bibliography and book studies in the republic, in Kyiv in January 1919. In 1922, the Ukrainian Book Chamber [Ukrains’ka knizhkova palata] was created in Kharkiv, then capital of Ukraine; to avoid losing the cadre of experts and to preserve the collected publishing resources of the republic for the years 1917-1921, a decision was made to establish a specialized institute for book studies in Kyiv, whose activities are the main topic of our article.
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the achievements of Ukrainian book studies a hundred years ago, specifically the work of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies (UNIK), which operated in Kyiv from 1922 to 1931 before entering a period of decline and ultimately ending in 1936. During the 1920s, the Institute was well known not only in Ukraine and the Soviet Union, but also in many countries around the world. The activities of UNIK were analyzed in works by the Polish scholar K. Migoń,3 in the English-language works of scholars from the Ukrainian diaspora,4 and in Ukrainian-5 and Russian-language6 publications. Our own monograph7 and numerous other articles have conducted basic research on the history of UNIK and of Ukrainian book studies from the 1920s to early 30s. A number of other scholars have indirectly examined specific areas of UNIK’s activities.8 Among the most recent publications is a bibliographically sophisticated book by Ie. Pshenychnyi dedicated to one of UNIK’s active members, Ia. Steshenko: the book includes a separate section devoted to the Institute.9
The theoretical basis of and sources for this article were provided by the archive of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies, which is stored at the Institute of Manuscripts at the Vernads’kyi National Library of Ukraine (fond 47); all issues of the journal Bibliographic Herald [Bibliolohichni visti], published by UNIK between 1923 and 1930; monographs produced by UNIK; and the aforementioned publications about this institution over the last hundred years.
1922-1926: The beginning and early development of UNIK
The Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies was organized on the basis of the former Main Book Chamber in Kyiv in the summer of 1922, simultaneously with the founding of the Ukrainian Book Chamber in Kharkiv, then capital of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (SSR). The Chamber was charged with collecting and registering all current publications appearing on the territory of the republic from 1922 onward, while the Institute of Book Studies was charged with academic research on printed matter in Ukraine from 1917 (the year of the coup d’état in the Russian Empire, which then included Ukraine) as well as the study of Ukrainian printing outside of Ukraine.
The director of UNIK was a young, energetic figure in book, library, and bibliographic matters, Iurii Mezhenko (1892-1969). He already had experience as director of the Main Book Chamber, the All-People’s Library of Ukraine, and the Kyiv Regional Department of the All-Ukrainian Publishing House [Kyivs’kyi kraiovyi viddil pry Vseukrains’komu vidavnitstvi]. He certainly developed the strategic orientations for the Institute’s activities and for Ukrainian book studies overall. The primary focus of study during those first years was bibliographic research on the various types of Ukrainian printed matter, as evidenced, among other things, by the structure of the Institute, which consisted of departments of the book, the press, the proclamation and political poster, and “Ukrainica.” The staff of the Institute was quite small, at only eight to ten employees, but nonetheless set ambitious goals for themselves, as described in Ukrainian and French on their letterhead during those early years:
Tasks: Research and analysis of book studies in general and, primarily and in particular, of Ukrainian book studies. Organization of a bibliology research center in Ukraine. Development and promotion of scientific-methodological work in bibliology. Consolidation and support of the work of Ukrainian book scholars.
Methods: Constant communication with book research institutions and libraries in Ukraine, abroad, and internationally. Card-indexing of printed books. Encyclopedia of documents. Library of Ukrainian publications. Library of book studies. Museum of the book. Courses in book studies. A bibliological publishing house. The journal Bibliographic Herald.10
During its first years of activity, UNIK in fact persistently gathered an archive of Ukrainian publications and a library of book studies, processed various statistics on Ukrainian publications from 1917 to 1919 while seeking out reliable data and compiling a card-index of publications, and prepared bibliographic works on the history of periodicals, cartography, book studies, the history of national public education, and agricultural literature. It also organized two major book exhibitions: the First All-Ukrainian Exhibition of the Printed Word in Kyiv [Persha Vseukrains’ka vystavka drukovanoho slova v Kyievi] (1923) and an exhibition of early Ukrainian printed books dedicated to the 350th anniversary of domestic book printing (1925). Thanks to these exhibitions, the 1923 publication of the journal Bibliographic Herald, and a series of book-studies pamphlets, UNIK quickly became known to experts in various fields of the humanities, not only in Ukraine and the Soviet Union but also abroad.
The Institute belonged to several specialized international societies, in particular the Library Association (London), Deutscher Verein für Buchwesen und Schrifttum (Leipzig), and Gutenberg-Gesellschaft (Mainz). They conducted active correspondence on professional issues with many book-related institutions, organizations, and industries and with leading book-studies scholars, exchanging publications and bibliographic information. Constant contact with organizations and correspondents like the Czech-based L. Bykovs’kyi (Poděbrady) and S. Siropolko (Prague) allowed the Institute to keep abreast of international book-studies matters and keep the readers of Bibliographic Herald informed, especially through communiqués in its Chronicle column, and to monitor the emergence of new foreign book-studies literature, subscribing to it through International Book [Russian: Mezhdunarodnaia kniga]11 or ordering directly from the bookstores of K. Hiersemann in Leipzig or Ia. Povolotskii12 in Paris.
From its first years of existence, UNIK devoted considerable attention to popularizing the documentary-science ideas of Paul Otlet (the founder not only of documentary science as an applied discipline of the information sciences, but also of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) in Brussels), transferring these ideas to Ukrainian soil. First and foremost, this meant publishing a translation of the IIB’s calls for periodicals to assist in compiling an international reference apparatus, the so-called Documentary Encyclopedia.13
The Institute actively discussed urgent issues at numerous meetings and conferences. For example, at the First All-Ukrainian Meeting of Book Workers [Persha Vseukrains’ka narada pratsivnikiv knyhy] in 1923, UNIK Director Iurii Mezhenko delivered three important papers that led to the adoption of individual resolutions: one on publishing book-studies literature, one on creating a bibliographic society, and one on indexing and card-cataloguing (i.e. systematization and cataloguing of publications). The latter concerned the known need to introduce in Ukraine a decimal classification code (UDC) on the back of the title pages of printed works. From early autumn 1923 to late autumn 1925, UNIK centrally indexed all Ukrainian publications, by which point printing houses had learned to carry out indexing on their own. For several months in 1924, the Institute issued bibliographic cards for printed works of the Ukrainian SSR based on the rules set forth by the IIB in Brussels to harmonize descriptions and support libraries. UNIK made numerous efforts to create training courses for those engaged in fields related to books, libraries, and book studies.
1926-1931: Further Developments for UNIK
Over time, the tasks of the Institute changed and the scope of its scholarly interests and corresponding research expanded, which was to some extent due to the particular scholars drawn to the work. In 1926, a new resolution on UNIK, the Ukrainian Academic Research Institute of Book Studies, was adopted (as we see, the name changed somewhat, though the abbreviation remained UNIK),14 defining the institution‘s tasks as the scholarly development of issues related to book studies, training highly qualified workers and teachers in various branches of book studies, popularizing issues related to book studies, and preparing manuals for those working in the fields of publishing, bookselling, librarianship, and bibliography. A new structure for the Institute was approved — departments on the history, the sociology and economics, and the technology and art of the book — and a three-year postgraduate course for training academic staff was launched. These departments brought in full-time employees, while freelance scholars from other institutions were organized into committees on the history of the book, the art of the book, and bibliography, preparing academic reports, articles, or individual publications for UNIK. The new organization strengthened the Institute‘s academic work significantly. The main areas of study were the history of the Ukrainian book and press, which had not yet been studied at all, the art of the Ukrainian book, the roles and tasks of book studies in the face of an ever-increasing number of printed works and the emergence of the new general reader of the Ukrainian book, the study of reader tastes, and the corresponding role of libraries. On October 1, 1926, the Cabinet for the Study of the Book and the Reader [Kabinet vyvchanyia knyhy i chytacha] began its work under the UNIK department of sociology of the book; the Cabinet was initially chaired by V. Ivanushkin and later by D. Balyka. A temporary committee under Mezhenko’s leadership was also created to conduct a census of libraries.
We should emphasize here that the Russian Empire’s policy of Russification, of censorship directed against Ukrainian book publishing in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, contributed nothing, objectively speaking, to the publication of books in the Ukrainian language. It was only the nationalist upsurge that followed the revolution (the coup) in Russia in February 1917, as well as the Ukrainization policy pursued in the 1920s on the territory of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (part of the Soviet Union), that led to changes in these circumstances, an increase in Ukrainian-language book publishing, and the emergence of a general reader of Ukrainian-language books and periodicals. We should also take into account the difficult state of affairs in financing and printing in the Ukrainian Republic in the 1920s.
Despite these issues, the Institute nonetheless managed to issue sixty-six publications during its first eight years of existence (1923-1930), not counting pamphlets, as well as twenty-five issues of Bibliographic Herald and twelve more publications during the first half of the 1930s. All these publications were in Ukrainian.
The most foundational of these publications was the four-volume Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies [Trudy Instytutu knyhoznavstva]. The four volumes are: Vol. 1: The Ukrainian Book of the 16th-17th-18th centuries [T. 1. Ukrains’ka knyha XVI-XVII-XVIII st.], ed. M. Makarenko and S. Maslov (1926); Vol. 2: The Library and the Reader in Ukraine [T. 2. Biblioteka i chytach na Ukraini: Pratsi Kabinetu vyvchannia knyhy i chytacha], ed. D. Balyka (1930); Vol. 3: V. Shpilevych. Bibliography of Ukrainian Literature and Literary Studies for 1928 [T. 3. V. Shpilevych. Bibliohrafiia ukrains’koi literatury ta literaturoznavstva za 1928 rik], ed. Iu. Mezhenko (1930); and Vol. 4: V. Ihnatiienko. Bibliography of the Ukrainian Press, 1816-1916: Works of the Bibliographic Department [T. 4. V. Ihnatiienko. Bibliohrafiia ukrains’koi presy, 1816-1916: Pratsi bibliohrafichnoi sektsii], ed. Iu. Mezhenko (1930). More volumes were actively prepared — “The Ukrainian Book of the 19th and 20th Centuries” [Ukrains’ka knyha ХІХ і ХХ st.] and two volumes of bibliographic indexes for the first post-revolutionary years — but they unfortunately remained unpublished, like a number of other publications.
At the same time, recognizing the importance of serial publications in improving the culture of book publishing, UNIK founded two series: A Popular Science Library of Book Studies [Naukovo-populiarna biblioteka knyhoznavstva] and Ukrainian Bibliologists [Ukrains’ki bibliolohi]. Six trim little books were published under the first series: The Manuscript Book [Rukopysna knyha] by O. Maslova; Printing, Its Origin and Proliferation in Europe [Drukarstvo, ioho pochatok i poshirennia v Ievropi] by P. Popov; The Library in the Past [Biblioteka v mynulomu] by D. Balyka; The Ukrainian Printed Book of the 16th-18th Centuries [Ukrains’ka drukovana knyha XVI-XVIII vv.] by S. Maslov; The Technology of Printing [Drukars’ka tekhnika] by E. Rykhlik; and The Ukrainian Press (1816-1923) [Ukrains’ka presa (1816-1923 rr.)] by V. Ihnatiienko. The first five appeared in 1925 and the sixth in 1926. Only one small book was published in the Ukrainian Bibliologists series: Serhii Maslov. 1902-1927, to commemorate twenty-five years of his scholarship. Pamphlets were also published outside of these series, and reprints of articles from journals or from the first volume of the Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies were published in separate editions that had their own covers with the UNIK publishing mark and their own pagination, so they looked like individual pamphlets.
The most significant achievement of scholarship at UNIK was research in the field of book history, primarily, of course, Ukrainian book history. This is understandable since, as Hr. Tysiachenko wrote, “we still have not done the initial work, the collection of the material itself for the history of the book,”15 and who else should study the history of their national book if not the experts who lived and worked there? We should note that nineteenth-century Ukrainian scholars did little more than collect individual facts about the history of printing and publishing in the Ukrainian lands; UNIK’s work in this area, the first time that comprehensive research had been carried out, should therefore be considered a turning point in the historiography of Ukrainian book publishing.
From 1926 to 1935, the well-known book studies scholar S. Maslov served as chair of the department and the committee on book history. He endorsed the scientific approach to studying the history of the book in Ukrainian book studies. In the 1920s, he wrote his most significant works related to historical book studies, including “Printing in Ukraine in the 16th-18th Centuries” [Drukarstvo na Ukraini v XVI-XVIII st.], published in the anniversary issue of the journal Bibliographic Herald and as an individual reprint in 1924.16 This substantial work discusses the activities of Ukrainian printing houses in Galicia, Volhynia, Kyiv, and the Chernihiv region, as well as Ielisavethrad (now the city of Kropyvnytskyi), Kremenchuk, Katerynoslav (now Dnipro), Kharkiv, and Mykolaiv. It was republished in German translation and with new photographs in Mainz in 1926 as part of the Gutenberg Yearbook (Gutenberg-Jahrbuch), adapted for foreign readers at the request of the Gutenberg Museum.17 This was a very important publication, as it testified to the entrance of Ukrainian book studies onto the international scene. The famous Polish book-studies scholar K. Migoń said of another of Maslov’s works, The Ukrainian Printed Book of the 16th-18th Centuries [Ukrains’ka drukovana knyha XVI-XVIII vv.],18 “Maslov’s book was the first Ukrainian attempt at a systematic synthesis of the history of early Ukrainian printed books.”19 Along with historical information about printing houses that operated in Ukraine between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, the work examined issues of content and language, title pages, frontispieces, fonts used by the printers, artistic decorations, format and appearance, and differences in editions. It also provided information about book binding, the book trade, libraries, and bibliophilia. Maslov clearly considered the history of the book a composite area of study.
Between 1925 and 1929, Maslov published his Studies on the History of Early Printed Publications [Etiudy z istorii starodrukiv], a total of twelve studies across three editions.20 It was Maslov who first advanced the crucial methodological requirement that, when describing or studying early printed editions, all available surviving copies of that edition must be consulted if possible. The studies were devoted to early printed books published in Old Slavonic or Old Ukrainian, as well as Polish (Study II), Latin (Studies IX-X), and Arabic (Study VII).
Another member of the UNIK commissions on the history and art of the book, P. Popov, made significant contributions to the fields of book history and the history of book printing. The publications Popov prepared during his collaboration with UNIK revealed a new page in the history of the book in Ukraine. These works include The Origin of Printing Among the Slavs [Pochatok drukarstva u slov’ian] (1924), Printing, Its Origin and Proliferation in Europe [Drukarstvo, ioho pochatok i poshyrennia v Ievropi] (1925), and Materials Towards a Dictionary of Ukrainian Engravers [Materialy do slovnyka urkains’kykh hraveriv] (1926).
A General Overview of the Old Printed Books of Kyiv Libraries [Zahal’nyi ohliad starodrukiv kyivs’kykh bibliotek], published in the anniversary issue of Bibiliographic Herald in 1924 by another member of the UNIK committee on the history of the book, V. Barvinok, remains popular even today. The scholar studied collections at the Kyiv Theological Academy and former Church and Archeological Museum, the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, St. Sophia Cathedral, the St. Michael and Vydubyts’kyi Monasteries, the St. Vladimir University of Kyiv [now the Taras Schevchenko National University of Kyiv], the First State Museum, collections at individual churches around Kyiv, and more. The detailed evidence Barvinok presented has still lost none of its scholarly or informational value and was simply irreplaceable at that time. He made interesting observations that, once again, should be considered the first of their kind: there were significantly more printing houses in the Ukrainian lands in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries than there were in Russia (initially only in Moscow, later in St. Petersburg). The author draws readers’ attention to the appearance of early printed books, particularly to the difference between Ukrainian and Muscovite books, starting with the font and decorative elements, dwelling on the features of the engravings, and providing relevant examples. The author considers not only religious engravings, but also those secular in content — like coats of arms in various books, or the image of P. Sahaidachnyi seated on a horse in a 1622 Kyivan edition — as another feature characteristic of early printed books in Ukraine. The Muscovite publications of that time had nothing of the sort, the scholar emphasized, though they do have their own, albeit much more modest, decoration.
Book printing in Ukraine has always been a multilingual affair; different fonts were used in Ukrainian lands based on Church Slavonic, Latin, Russian Cyrillic, and Hebrew scripts and, of course, in various languages and for various categories and strata of the population. Thus, for example, two issues of Bibliographic Herald (1925 and no. 1, 1926), as well as two individual pamphlets issued by UNIK, presented S. Borovyi’s Essays on the History of the Jewish Book in Ukraine [Narysy z istorii ievreis’koi knyhy na Ukraini] which covered the history of Jewish printing in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the Dnipro Ukraine. We know that a third essay was not published for ideological reasons. The author provides a list of Jewish printing houses, indicating the years they existed and their owners, as well as data on censorship of Jewish publications. His overviews of exhibitions of Jewish books and press, as well as his notes on the work of Jewish libraries and scholarly institutions, are similarly informative. This subject area, which was both academically novel and relevant given the increasing urban Jewish population, including in Kyiv, also demonstrates that later accusations against UNIK of bourgeois Ukrainian nationalism and of highlighting only Ukrainian issues had no basis in reality.
While most of the materials had been collected for the study of early printed books, the history of the nineteenth-century Ukrainian book remained completely unexplored. After hearing reports on this, UNIK therefore supported and planned to publish P. Balytskyi’s History of the Ukrainian Book of the First Half of the Nineteenth Century [Istoriia ukrains’koi knyhy I pol. XIX st.], “Kharkiv Publishers and Their Ukrainian Editions of the First Half of the Nineteenth Century” [Kharkivs’ki vydavtsi i ikh ukrains’ki vydannia pershoi polovyny XIX st.], and other works.21 UNIK published S. Iefremov’s article “At the Dawn of Ukrainian Publishers” [Na svitanku ukrains’kykh vydavnytstv]22 and “Within Narrow Constraints. The Ukrainian Book in 1798-1916” [V tisnykh riamtsiakh: Ukrain’ska knyha v 1798-1916 rr.],23 a comprehensive essay on the history of pre-revolutionary Ukrainian book publishing. Iefremov’s innovation in this area of book-studies research is undeniable. He was the first to identify which events, publications, authors, and publishing houses should and would continue to be considered the most significant in the history of domestic book publishing. He managed to capture the process of Ukrainian book publishing as a whole, with all its problems, its peaks and valleys, its successes earned sometimes at the very limit of human capabilities, and its desire to overcome all obstacles in order to bring Ukrainian books to readers.
As for study of the Soviet Ukrainian book, the staff at UNIK quite rightly felt themselves not only contemporaries but also participants in the literary life of the republic in the 1920s, so they considered it necessary to collect, and use bibliographic methods to process, all information about printing in Ukraine, as well as to prepare auxiliary research indexes sorted by industry. They believed that future scholars of the book would eventually be able to use these materials to create summary works on the history of the Ukrainian Soviet book of the 1920s. At the same time, several works devoted to the development of the Ukrainian Soviet book were prepared according to UNIK’s plans. These included Iu. Mezhenko’s influential article “The Ukrainian Book of the Great Revolutionary Period” [Ukrains’ka knyzhka chasiv Velykoi revoliutsii], published both in the journal Life and Revolution [Zhyttia i revoliutsiia] and as a separate imprint in 1927, and A. Kozachenko’s 1927 work Book Production of the Ukrainian SSSR (1923-1926) [Knyzhkova produktsiia USSR (1923-1926)].
The study of domestic periodicals could be considered a separate topic of historical research by UNIK. The most significant contribution in this area in the 1920s came from V. Ihnatiienko, whose article “A History and Study of the Ukrainian Press” [Istoriia ukrainskoi presy ta ii vyvchennia]24 was published as early as 1923. In terms of what press we should consider Ukrainian, he rejected the principle of statehood, since Ukraine had no such statehood before the creation of the independent Ukrainian People’s Republic in 1918. As for the language principle, the author emphasized the presence of various dialects and spellings within Ukrainian and proposed a stipulation that all of the language’s branches throughout its historical development should be considered Ukrainian. However, there was still the question of bilingual journals, like those in Ukrainian and Russian, as well as journals with Ukrainian national content that were nonetheless published in other languages, like Russian (Ukrainian Life [Russian: Ukrainskaia zhizn’], Ukrainian Herald [Russian: Ukrainskii vestnik]), German, French, and so forth. This meant that the language principle was also unjustified. A closer reflection of reality, Ihnatiienko wrote, meant relying on the choice of a certain territory as a base; he chose the ethnographic territory settled by the Ukrainian nation. Thus, as the only principle for solving the problem of “what press we should consider Ukrainian,” the author proposed the language principle in conjunction “with the main ethnographic territory settled by the Ukrainian people, with the addition of those islets settled by Ukrainian emigrants in America, the Far East, and other regions of the world.”25
As press (periodicals), Ihnatiienko considered not only newspapers and journals, but also almanacs and collections that were published periodically. He identified the following main periods of press development: 1) 1816-1834, the period of Ukrainian press in other languages, 2) 1834-1904, the period of press development in the ethnic Ukrainian lands along the Dniester River and outside the Ukrainian territory, 3) 1905-1914, inclusion of the territory of the Dnipro Ukraine into the subject of study, 4) the period of war and the beginning of the revolution (1914-1917), and 5) the years 1917-1923. Within each of these periods, he classified the press according to other sub-categories.
Ihnatiienko continued his work in this field. As noted above, in 1926 UNIK published his pamphlet The Ukrainian Press (1816-1923) and, in 1930, his foundational bibliographical index V. Ihnatiienko. Bibliography of the Ukrainian Press, 1816-1916: Works of the Bibliographic Department as Volume Four of Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies. In this index, Ihnatiienko recorded 616 names of newspapers and journals, arranged in chronological order and alphabetically within each year.
In 1926, UNIK published an article by I. Krevets’kyi, “The First Newspaper in Ukraine” [Persha hazeta na Ukraini] about the 1776 Gazette de Léopol. Alongside his account of this French-language newspaper in Lviv, the author noted the absence of a historical review of the Ukrainian press overall, of monographs on individual Ukrainian newspapers and journals, and of a corresponding bibliography. He continued the debate over what press should be considered Ukrainian and where to begin its history. Krevets’kyi stressed that any concept of “the Ukrainian press” should cover not just the national Ukrainian press but also everything published within the territory of Ukraine. His call to distinguish between the history of the national press and the history of the press in Ukraine was an important one: he believed the latter group had outpaced the national Ukrainian press.
The committee on the art of the book worked in close cooperation with the commission on the history of the book. The art committee examined the processes involved in creating a book, its design, graphics, and bindings. The chair of the committee, Professor N. Makarenko, prepared a number of interesting works at UNIK, above all The Art of the Book [Mystetstvo knyzhky] (1924) and Ukrainian Book Ornamentation of the 16th-17th Centuries [Ornamentatsiia ukrains’koi knyzhky XVI-XVII st.] (1926). Makarenko understood that the book, its content, and its overall design were inextricably linked. UNIK also published two articles by another member of the committee, D. Shcherbakivs’kyi: “Gold Bookbinding in Ukraine in the 16th-17th Centuries” [Zolotars’ka oprava knyzhky v XVI-XIX stolittiakh na Ukraini] (1924), where he provided information about the binding of the Gospels and highlighted the main types of binding, and “The Book Bindings of Kyiv Goldsmiths of the 17th-18th Centuries” [Opravy knyzhok kyivs’kykh zolotariv XVII-XVIII st.] (1926), devoted to the problems of attributing date and place of manufacture to Gospel bindings and jeweled settings. The author’s observations about the possible discrepancy between the place of binding and the location of the contribution to the church, between the time the binding was created and the time the book was published, are extremely important. Despite their incomplete and fragmentary nature, both of Shcherbakivs’kyi’s studies are important for the history of Ukrainian books and art, since they contain descriptions of specific works, some of which have not survived, along with photos and a great deal of interesting additional information, as well as the earliest theoretical generalizations about the stages and styles of bookbinding and about the art of bookbinding overall.
At meetings of the bibliographic commission, both theoretical and methodological issues related to bibliographic practice were discussed. Before that time, terminological issues had not been discussed in Ukrainian book studies, which was not exactly rich in theoretical works. Iu. Mezhenko was one of the first Ukrainian scholars to begin developing these issues. In his article “Theoretical Prerequisites for Organizing Ukrainian Bibliographic Work” [Teoretychni peredumovy orhanizatsii ukrains’koi bibliohrafichnoi roboty],26 he singles out bibliography from the overall system of book-studies disciplines. Understanding bibliography as a “purely formal” science, Mezhenko stressed that theoretical bibliography should be distinguished from bibliographical lists, or “practical bibliography.” He considered further work on the topic of “Ukrainica” an important task. As for practical bibliographic work, he identified three areas: the bibliography of objective description, that is, registrational bibliography (of which he considered the national bibliography a part); subjective or annotative bibliography; and selective or recommendational bibliography. This demonstrated a new approach to classifying the types of bibliography, an approach that would become a leading feature of bibliography classification types.
Professor D. Balyka, who worked at UNIK, proposed dividing bibliography into two types: descriptive (registrational, informational) and recommendation (critical), based primarily on their functions, either registering books or recommending them to readers, a book evaluation of sorts. He singled out these types of bibliography from other methodological positions, namely exhaustive bibliography and selective bibliography. Critical bibliography in particular enjoyed special attention in the Soviet Union in the late 1920s-1930s, since it was an effective element of ideological influence on the masses.
So it was that a terminological system was established, professional concepts were defined, and a species structure of bibliography and classification of bibliographic aids took shape in Ukrainian book studies and bibliographic studies in the 1920s. We should also mention Iu. Mezhenko’s contribution to the development of sector-specific bibliographies, particularly in literary studies, as the director of UNIK was a famous literary scholar at that time. For example, along with his coauthor N. Iashek, he compiled “Foreign Language Literature in Ukrainian Translations” [Chuzhomovne pys’menstvo v ukrains’kykh perekladakh],27 a work designed to promote European literature to domestic readers.
Mezhenko considered the primary task of Ukrainian bibliography to be the creation of an all-Ukrainian bibliographic repertory, a list of all Ukrainian publications. Especially important was the method proposed by UNIK, primarily Maslov, for organizing the Ukrainian bibliographic repertory of early printed books, a method distinguished by its thoroughness and clarity. Maslov repeatedly addressed this problem when he chaired the Committee for Description of Publications Published on the Territory of Ukraine in the 16th-18th Centuries (1924) and when he was a member of the Bibliographic Commission of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (1927). We should consider his understanding of the “Ukrainian bibliographic repertory” a success. As its basis, Maslov proposed the ethnographic-territorial principle: the repertory should include the products of all printing houses — Ukrainian, Polish, and Jewish — that were operating during that time in Ukrainian lands. Though their Ukrainian bibliographical repertory of the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries was never created for reasons that were predominantly ideological, the initial propositions Maslov and other UNIK figures developed were later taken into account by A. Zapasko and Ia. Isaievych when compiling their Catalogue of Early Printed Books Published in Ukraine [Kataloh starodrukiv, vydanykh na Ukraini] (1981-1984).28 They remain significant today. Among the published works of theory on national biography prepared by UNIK, the most thorough is the article by P. Inozemtsev, “The Problem of a National Bibliography in Ukraine” [Problema natsional’noi bibliohrafii na Ukraini],29 which summarizes a ten-year period. It contains a list of literature of that time by topic, characterizes the main features of national biographies of various countries, and clarifies the problem of a national bibliography repertory in Ukraine.
Gradually, the inclination towards historical book studies and bibliography that was clearly felt in UNIK’s research until 1926 gave way to sociological research. There was a marked change in their object of study: no longer just books, but books in interaction with readers. In fact, it was this sociological angle of research into this book-reader system that constituted the main contribution of UNIK scholars to the theory both of book studies and of library science. The main purpose of this system was to study the influence of books on readers and, on this basis, to develop self-education methods and methods for libraries to serve readers. In the aggregate, all this was designated “readership.” The practical task of the Cabinet for the Study of the Book and the Reader at UNIK was to study the mass demand of readers and their patterns, and to make adjustments to the publishing business on that basis. The material set out in the pamphlet by V. Ivanushkin, “The Problem of Readership and How to Study It” [Problema chytachivstva ta ii vyvchennia]30 could be considered a conceptual theory, though it would have been quite difficult for contemporary users of his work to understand. The question of how to accomplish the task in practice was discussed quite carefully, and the questionnaire survey acknowledged as the most appropriate method. This led to the idea of an All-Ukrainian survey of libraries regarding their work with readers.
UNIK appealed to every region of Ukraine with a request to send lists of all their libraries, addresses, and indications of the library type and contingent of readers. At the Institute’s request, the publisher Knyhospilka printed the appeal “To All Libraries and Those Who Study the Book and the Reader”; a similar appeal was published in several newspapers. With the permission of the censor, twenty thousand questionnaires for surveying libraries and their work with readers were printed and sent out, implementing the 1927-28 All-Ukrainian Library Census, the Soviet Union’s first questionnaire-based sociological survey of libraries. A set of instructions was sent to libraries along with cards for recording book requests. The cards came in different versions depending on the category of readers.
In order for the study to cover the broadest spectrum of readers, the Cabinet developed and proposed various methods for registering reader demand in urban librarianships that served various categories of readers, like laborers, office workers, students, and women. In villages and rural reading rooms, the study of rural-reader interest was carried out through live readings followed by discussions of those readings, thus verifying how the rural reader perceived various literary works. The questionnaires, which the Cabinet systematized by region and type of library, account for twenty-six volumes in the UNIK archive. At the same time, they compiled a reference apparatus, a card-index system with the addresses of ten thousand libraries that UNIK prepared for print as a library directory. The summary tables the Cabinet created and the results of materials drawn from the surveys represent valuable sources not just for studying the history of librarianship in Ukraine, but also as an important experiment in sociological research methodology. A selection of materials from the library survey was shaped into individual articles and brought together in the collection The Library and the Reader in Ukraine, published as Volume Two of the Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies (1930).
Thus, a characteristic feature of the initial stage of the history of Ukrainian book studies as an area of study was the formation of new branches of book knowledge and the methodological renewal of book-studies disciplines. This process resulted from the fact that unresolved issues related to book practice required theoretical understanding, and the rapid growth and development of the book industry led to the differentiation of book-studies research. Taken together, these correspond to the objective historical development of any multifaceted science: the generalization of practical experience provides theoretical material for integrating accumulated knowledge to the point of creating a general theory of that science while simultaneously developing its individual disciplines. It was UNIK, as the first academic institution in Ukraine in the field of book science, that laid the foundation for the development of theoretical foundations for Ukrainian book studies.
1931-1936: the Decline and End of UNIK
UNIK’s activity was abruptly halted in 1931 due to the ideological devastation of the Institute and similar institutions. What came to dominate was not scholarly work but critical attacks on the work of predecessors and self-criticism both in printed works and in reports delivered during regular meetings and sessions. Often these reports themselves, published in the press or in individual publications, constituted the main “scientific” result of the new Institute, like K. Dovhan’’s paper “Against Eclecticism and Revisionism in Book Studies. For Bolshevik Rearmament” [Proty eklektyky ta revizionizmu v knyhoznavstvi. Za bil’shovits’ke pereozbroiennia] (1932) or N. Birkina’s report “Against Eclecticism in Readership Issues” [Proty eklektizmu v pytanniakh chytachivstva] (1933). As Migoń noted in “Book studies in the interwar period,” political slogans replaced scholarly work. There was a turnover of staff at the Institute, and the incoming personnel had nothing to add to the field. In 1936, the Institute was disbanded, and a “Scientific-Methodological Cabinet of Library Science and Mass Bibliography” was organized in its place. This cabinet did not in fact continue UNIK’s work. Beginning in the mid-1930s, Ukrainian book studies took place only within émigré circles. As for the Ukrainian SSR, book studies gradually began developing only in the late 1950s and early 60s.
This review of UNIK’s scholarly work allows us to assert that the development of book studies in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in the 1920s was both highly productive and original. It was characterized by a focus on the study of the reader, the sociology of the book, the role of art in the book, and bibliographic activities, as well as by the first extensive research on the history of the Ukrainian book.31 The study of the Ukrainian reader and of libraries that UNIK conducted in the late 1920s serves as an example of thorough and effective development of a major research problem that is still relevant today. In just eight years, they created a Ukrainian school of book studies whose research was recognized far beyond Ukraine’s borders, thanks to the Institute’s publications. The circle of book-studies scholars expanded, and they accumulated an enormous amount of material which, if processed, could have raised research to a new level and led not only to a further deepening of theory but also, and most importantly, to practical improvement both in the publications themselves and in their distribution. Unfortunately, this progressive development of book studies in Ukraine was artificially halted, as it was in other Soviet republics, due to political missteps in the public life of the country in the early 1930s, including theories about the growth of class struggle and a two-front war against both Trotskyism and bourgeois nationalism, which automatically transferred to all spheres of life, including book studies. The next stage in the development of book studies in Ukraine began only in the late 1950s.
- These early developments were made in Polish, not Ukrainian, due to the region’s history. In general, there were two centers of early modern bibliographic work in Ukraine, located in different parts of the country: L’viv in Galicia, in the west, and Kharkiv, in the east. See Edward Kasinec, “Iurii O. Ivaniv-Mezhenko (1892-1969) as a Bibliographer during His Years in Kiev, 1919-1933” in The Journal of Library History, vol. 14, no. 1 (Winter 1979), 7. To go into more detail about this area in western Ukraine, both Galicia and its neighbor Volhynia, home of the Krzemieniec Lyceum, had been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for centuries, but after the partitions of Poland in 1772-1795, which ended the existence of Poland as a state, Galicia went to the Austro-Hungarian Empire while Volhynia went to the Russian Empire. Poland regained statehood after WWI; after some hundred and twenty-five years as imperial subjects, the Peace of Riga in 1921 formally ceded Galicia entirely to Poland, but divided Volhynia between Poland and the Ukrainian SSR (Fisher’s note).↩
- Readers should be aware of the historical context of the post-1917 period in Ukraine, when various Ukrainian and foreign groups fought to control Ukrainian lands from the end of the Russian Empire in 1917 to the establishment of Russian Bolshevik military dominance in 1921. During this chaotic period, some cities were taken over a dozen times or more in rapid succession. A very basic overview is that after the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, a Ukrainian People’s Republic was declared, but with competing centers of power: the Central Council [Tsentral’na Rada] in Kyiv and the Russian Bolshevik-backed forces in Kharkiv. After the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, German and Austro-Hungarian forces drove the Bolsheviks out. In late 1918, however, Germany withdrew from Ukraine, so Bolshevik forces reemerged, causing pro-independence Ukrainian forces to retreat to Eastern Galicia. After months of fighting, Poland and Russia signed the Peace of Riga in March 1921, establishing the border between Poland and what would be the Ukrainian SSR; the treaty put an end not only to the fighting, but also to Ukraine’s post-1917 bid for independence. The USSR, with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic as one of the founding four SSRs, was officially declared in December 1922 (Fisher’s note).↩
- K. Migoń, “Book studies in the interwar period” [Księgoznawstwo ukraińskie w dwudziestoleciu miedzywojennym] in Book Studies [Studia o Ksiąźce] (Wrocław, 1970), vol. 1, 25-41.↩
- D. Shtohryn, “The Rise and Fall of Book Studies in Ukraine,” in Books, Libraries, and Information in Slavic and East European Studies (New York, 1986), 17-28.↩
- Ia.D. Isaievych, “The Ukrainian Science and Research Institute of Book Studies: traditions and creative investigations” [Ukrains’kyi naukovo-doslidnyi instytut knyhoznavstva: tradytsii i tvorchyi poshuk] in Scientific works of the Vernads’kyi National Library of Ukraine [Naukovi pratsi Natsional’noi biblioteky Ukrainy imeni V.I. Vernads’koho], 1999, vol. 2, 6-10.↩
- N.K. Lelikova, “The book studies concepts of Ukrainian researchers” [Knigovedcheskie kontseptsii ukrainskikh uchenykh] in N.K. Lelikova, The formation and development of book studies and bibliography in Russia in the 19th and first third of the 20th centuries [Stanovlenie i razvitie knigovedcheskoi i bibliograficheskoi nauk v Rossii v XIX-pervoi treti XX veka] (Saint Petersburg, 2004), 250-72.↩
- H.I. Koval’chuk, The Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies (1922-1936) [Ukrains’kyi naukovyi instytut knyhoznavstva (1922-1936)] (Kyiv: Akademperiodyka, 2015).↩
- T.V. Novalska, “The Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies as a center of reader studies” [Ukrains’kii naukovyi instytut knyhoznavstva yak oseredok chytacheznavstva] in T.V. Novalska, Library Reader Studies in Ukraine: History, Theory, Practice [Bibliotechne chytacheznavstvo v Ukraini: istoriia, teoriia, praktyka] (Kyiv: Lira-K, 2018), 132-49.** The author also requested that UNIK-related works by Edward Kasinec be listed. See “Iurii O. Ivaniv-Mezhenko (1892-1969) as a Bibliographer during His Years in Kiev, 1919-1933” in The Journal of Library History, vol. 14, no. 1 (Winter 1979), 1-20; “Introduction,” in Serhii Ivanovych Maslov. The Ukrainian Printed Book of the 16th-18th Centuries [Serhii Ivanovych Maslov. Ukrains’ka drukovana knyha XVI-XVIII vv.] (Edmonton: Vydavnytstvo Kanads’koho instytutu ukrains’kykh studii Al’berts’kyi universytet, 1992, Dovidnyk no. 50, 1-2); and “Introduction,” in Varfolomii Ihnatiienko. The Ukrainian Press, 1816-1923 [Varfolomii Ihnatiienko. Ukrains’ska presa, 1816-1923 rr.] (Edmonton: Vydavnytstvo Kanads’koho instytutu ukrains’kykh studii Al’berts’kyi universytet, 1992, Dovidnyk no. 50, 2). The latter two works listed are English-language introductions to reprints of studies originally published by UNIK in 1925 in the series A Popular Science Library of Book Studies (Fisher’s note).↩
- Ie. Pshenychnyi, “Iaroslav Steshenko in UNIK” [Iaroslav Steshenko v UNIK] in Iaroslav Steshenko: epistolary monologue [Iaroslav Steshenko: epistoliarnyi monoloh] (Drohobych: Kolo, 2020).↩
- Institute of Manuscripts, Vernads’kyi National Library of Ukraine, fond 33, item 2250.↩
- This Soviet book-trade institution founded in Moscow in 1923 was one of the few official ways that technical literature in foreign languages could legally enter the USSR (translator’s note).↩
- Iakov Povolotskii, aka Iakov Benderskii (1881-1945), was born in Odesa. He emigrated to France, married artist Hélène Joséphine Bernier, and was naturalized under the name Jacques Povolozky; his art gallery Galerie La Cible and his bookstore J. Povolozky & Co. in Paris were gathering spaces for artists, writers, and White Russian émigrés (Fisher’s note).↩
- Otlet envisioned the Documentary Encyclopedia as responsible “for completing the documentary edifice” begun with the reorganization of libraries and with the IIB’s Universal Bibliography project. See Paul Otlet, “The International Organisation of Bibliography and Documentation,” in Paul Otlet, International Organization and Dissemination of Knowledge, ed. W. Boyd Rayward (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990), 173-203. The encyclopedia was launched in 1907 under the name “Encyclopedic Repertory of Dossiers” but remained better known as the Documentary Encyclopedia. See W. Boyd Rayward, “The Origins of Information Science and the International Institute of Bibliography/International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID),” Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 1997, vol. 48, no. 4, 289-300 (translator’s note).↩
- The original name of the Institute was the Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies [Ukrains’kyi naukovyi instytut knyhoznavstva], known by the acronym UNIK, while the new name after the 1926 resolution was the Ukrainian Academic Research Institute of Book Studies [Ukrains’kyi naukovo-doslidnyi instytut knyhoznavstva] (Fisher’s note).↩
- Hr. Tysiachenko, “Collected information about publishers, presses, and bookstores in Ukraine” [Zibrannia vidomostiv pro vydavnitstva, drukarni i knyharni na Ukraini], Bibliographic Herald, 1923, no.4, 63-4.↩
- S.I. Maslov, “Printing in Ukraine in the 16th-18th Centuries,” Bibliographic Herald, 1924, nos. 1-3, 31-67. Published separately in Kyiv, 1924 (39 pages with illustrations).↩
- S.I. Masslow [Maslov], “Ukrainische Druckkunst des 16. bis 18. Jahrhunderts” (Mainz, 1926). Sonderabzug aus dem Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, 14 S., 1 Bl., 5 Bl. Ill.↩
- S.I. Maslov, The Ukrainian Printed Book of the 16th-18th Centuries (Kyiv: Derzhavne vydavnytstvo Ukrainy, 1925). Series: A Popular Science Library of Book Studies, ed. Iu. Mezhenko, vol. 4.↩
- Migoń, “Book studies,” 32.↩
- The first volume is Studies on the History of Early Printed Publications: I-VIII (Kyiv, 1925, 82 pages, ill.), a reprint from Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies, vol. 1: The Ukrainian Book of the 16th-17th-18th Centuries, 1926, 77-154. The second volume is Studies on the History of Early Printed Publications: IX-X in The Jubilee Collection in Honor of Academician D.I. Bahaliia [Iuvileinyi zbirnyk na poshanu akademika D.I. Bahaliia] (Kyiv, 1927), 688-719 (separate printing: 26 pages). The third volume is Studies on the History of Early Printed Publications: XI-XII in Records of the historical and philological department of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences [Zapsyky istorychno-filolohichnoho viddilu VUAN], 1928, nos. 21-22, 45-93 (separate printing: 52 pages).↩
- Several of Balytskyi’s publications, including those presented and approved by UNIK, were published in the journal Life and Revolution [Zhyttia i revoliutsiia] and as separate imprints. The State Publishing House of Ukraine prepared his monograph History of the Ukrainian Book in the Nineteenth Century for publication, and they planned to publish a section of it entitled “Studies from the History of the Ukrainian Book of the 19th century” in the second volume of Proceedings of the Institute of Book Studies, but these projects were interrupted by Baltytskyi’s arrest in 1929 in connection with the “Union for the Liberation of Ukraine” case.** A show trial conducted against forty-five Ukrainian defendants accused of being part of an underground organization and plotting anti-state activities; the subsequent investigation expanded to thousands of Ukrainians who faced arrest, exile, and in some cases execution (translator’s note).↩
- S. Iefremov, “At the Dawn of Ukrainian Publishers,” Bibliographic Herald, 1925, nos. 1-2, 109-11.↩
- S. Iefremov, “Within Narrow Constraints. The Ukrainian Book in 1798-1916,” Bibliographic Herald, 1926, no. 2, 40-67.↩
- V. Ihnatiienko, “A History and Study of the Ukrainian Press,” Bibliographic Herald, 1923, no. 3, cols. 21-26 [The text in issues 3 and 4 for 1924 was organized in columns. All other issues of the journal were organized by pages (translator’s note)].↩
- Ibid., col. 24.↩
- Iu. Mezhenko, “Theoretical Prerequisites for Organizing Ukrainian Bibliographic Work,” Bibliographic Herald, 1926, no. 4, 48-61.↩
- M. Iashek and Iu. Mezhenko, “Foreign Language Literature in Ukrainian Translations,” Life and Revolution, 1929: Book 4, 191-202; Book 5, 163-73; Book 6, 147-58; Books 7/8, 232-55.↩
- Ia. Isaievych and Ia. Zapasko, Monuments of Book Art. Catalogue of Early Printed Books Published in Ukraine [Pam’iatky knyzhkovoho mystetstva. Kataloh starodrukiv, vydanykh na Ukraini] (Lviv: Vyshcha shkola, 1981). Book 1 (1574-1700), 136 pages, 1984. Book 2, Part 1 (1701-1764), 132 pages. Book 2, Part 2 (1765-1800), 128 pages.↩
- P. Inozemtsev, “The Problem of a National Bibliography in Ukraine,” Bibliological Herald, 1929, nos. 2-3, 5-25.↩
- V. Ivanushkin, “The Problem of Readership and How to Study It (Organizational Modes and Work Methods of the Cabinet for the Study of the Book and the Reader of the Work of the U.N.-D.I.K.)” [Problema chytachivstva ta ii vyvchennia (formi orhanizatsii ta metody roboty Kabinetu vyvchennia knyzhky ta chytacha pry U.N.-D.I.K.)], (Kyiv, 1926, 32 pages).↩
- Shtohryn, “The Rise and Fall of Book Studies in Ukraine,” n.p.↩
Cite: Halyna Koval’chuk, “From the History of Ukrainian Book Studies: On the Centenary of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Book Studies,” Lingua Franca, Issue 8, Part I (2022), https://www.sharpweb.org/linguafranca/2022-Kovalchuk.